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Alprazolam oral, Uses, Side effects, indications & Warnings

Alprazolam is a triazolobenzodiazepine with intermediary inception generally used to cure panic diseases and imprecise anxiety in adjunct to anxiety-related depression.

Alprazolam oral, Uses, Side effects, indications

Alprazolam is used for the medicament of fear and panic disorders. It is commonly metabolized by CYP3As and so is inappropriate with CYP3A moderators like ketoconazole and itraconazole. Benzodiazepine therapy should be ceased slowly by narrowing down a patient's dosage to stop withdrawal symptoms.

Alprazolam's adverse effects are mostly linked to the sedation it can begin. Alprazolam has been combined with alcohol as a drug of abuse to increase the sedative effects of the drug which may conduct coma or death.


The generic name of this drug is Alprazolam.


The popular brand names are Xanax, Xanax XR, Niravam,


The mechanism of action of alprazolam is as follows:

  1. Neurotransmitters in the brain and spinal cord are chemical messengers that aid the nerve cells to commune with one another. These chemicals can either be stimulative or repressing.
  2. Stimulatory neurotransmitters function in exciting the brain and spinal cord nerve cells. These chemicals assist the impulses to stretch from one cell to another. Increased advancement of nerve impulses function to enhance activity, attention, decreased rest, and terror.
  3. Repressing neurotransmitters function in inhibiting the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. These chemicals combine to inhibit the distribution of impulses from one cell to another. Curbing nerve impulses among nerve cells leads to decreased activity and alertness, enhanced rest, and guide anxiety symptoms.
  4. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a restrictive neurotransmitter in the brain and spinal cord. Elevating effects of GABA results in restriction of impulses among nerve cells, thus curtailing excitability, attentiveness, and panic, and encouraging dizziness and rest.
  5. Alprazolam is a drug affiliated with the benzodiazepine family, needed for control of anxiety and sleep chaos.
  6. Alprazolam functions by improving the effects of the limiting neurotransmitter, GABA, hence aiding to muscle relaxation, controlling seizures in individuals with history, decreased alertness and sensitivity to pain, promoting rest and sleep, and governing anxiety symptoms.
  7. Thus, alprazolam can be availed to relieve muscle spasms, sleep admission, and sedation in patients with a history of sleep ailments and insomnia, and hold of anxiety episodes in people with a history of panic and mood sickness. Alprazolam also helps to stop episodes of convulsions in persons with a history of seizures.


  • Alprazolam is employed to deal with anxiety and panic diseases.
  • It relates to a category of drugs called Benzodiazepine which work on the brain and central nervous system to create a calming impact.
  • It duties by improving the effects of a specific biological chemical in the body (GABA)


The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients.

  • For anxiety:
    • For oral dosage forms (solution, tablets, or orally disintegrating tablets):
      • Adults—At first, 0.25 to 0.5 milligram (mg) 3 times every day. The physician may increase dosage as required. Yet the dose is usually not more than 4 mg per day.
      • Older adults—Initially, 0.25 mg 2 or 3 times every day. The doctor may increase the dose as desired.
      • Children—Use and dosage is as prescribed by the consultant.
  • For panic disorder:
    • For oral dose (extended-release tablets):
      • Adults—Originally, 0.5 to 1 mg in the morning every day. The dose will be increased by the physician as needed. Yet, the dose is not more than 10 mg per day.
      • Older adults—First, 0.5 mg is taken in the morning every day. The doctor may increase the dose as required.
      • Children— Use and dosage is as prescribed by the consultant.
    • For oral dosage (solution, tablets, or orally integrated tablets):
      • Adults—First, 0.5 mg 3 times every day. The doctor might increase the dose as needed. Yet, the dose is mostly not more than 10 mg per day.
      • Senior adults—Initially, 0.25 mg 2 or 3 times every day. The consultant may increase the dose as required.
      • Children—Use and dosage is as prescribed by the consultant.


If a dose is missed, it is taken as soon as possible. But, if it is approximately time for the next dose, the skipped dose is missed dose and the regular dosing is continued.


Alprazolam is administered orally. The various oral forms are:

  • oral concentrate (1 mg/mL)
  • oral tablet (0.25 mg; 0.5 mg; 1 mg; 2 mg)
  • oral tablet, disintegrated (0.25 mg; 0.5 mg; 1 mg; 2 mg)
  • oral tablet, extended release (0.5 mg; 1 mg; 2 mg; 3 mg)


side effects that need the doctor right away:

  • Indications of an allergic consequence, like inflammation, hives, prickle, red, swollen, blistered, or scraping skin with or without fever, coughing, tightness in the chest, difficulty breathing, swallowing or speaking, extraordinary hoarseness, or lump of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
  • Symptoms of depression, suicidal emotions, sentimental ups and downs, unusual thinking, tension, or absence of concern in life
  • Modification in balance
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness or passing out
  • Feeling amazed
  • Memory loss
  • Difficulty speaking
  • Trouble urination
  • Menstrual alterations

Other side effects OF ALPRAZOLAM :

Medical help is needed if any of these side effects bother the patient or do not go away:

  • Dizziness, sleepy, tired, or weak
  • Dry mouth
  • Feeling hungry
  • Sick gut.
  • Constipation.
  • A shift in sex involvement
  • Sex crises
  • Weight gain or loss


  •  Alprazolam is contraindicated in any sufferer with assumed alprazolam or additional benzodiazepine hypersensitivity or recognized allergies to any ingredient of the formulation.
  • Bipolar disease, sadness, obsession, insanity, suicidal imaginativeness. Though alprazolam is sometimes helpful for cases with crucial depression, the medication should be dispensed to these patients with thorough monitoring.
  • Birth, neonates, obstetric childbirth, pregnancy. Alprazolam, like further benzodiazepines, presents a hazard of damage to the fetus when distributed to expecting women.
  • Hepatic disorder, obesity: Alprazolam should be distributed cautiously to cases with serious hepatic disorder because the elimination, half-life of the medication can be extended, possibly stemming from toxicity.
  • Renal loss, renal injury: Patients with renal harm, encompassing renal failure, should be carefully regulated during lengthy therapy with benzodiazepines, such as alprazolam, to prevent the unfavorable reaction
  • Dementia, geriatric: Alprazolam should be employed with a warning in geriatric adults as the discharge and/or elimination of alprazolam are curtailed. The contrary half-life of alprazolam is lengthened to 16.3 hours in the geriatric population correlated to 11.2 hours in healthy grown-up subjects. Late elimination can either strengthen or extend the actions of damaging responses of the drug. It is authorized that the dosage be restricted to the tiniest beneficial dose to prevent the advancement of ataxia or oversedation which may be a special problem
  • Children, infants: The careful and helpful use of alprazolam in neonates, tots, kids, and adolescents less than 18 years old has not been organized. Children are normally further susceptible to the CNS consequences of benzodiazepines.


Alprazolam has a chance for misuse and dependence, which can direct to overdose and death. Seizing this pill with alcohol or other medications that can result in sleepiness or breathing crises (particularly opioid prescriptions such as codeine, hydrocodone) may result in very severe side effects, comprising death

Interactions with food are:

The following food should be avoided while taking Alprazolam,

  • Prevent alcohol. Alcohol may potentiate the CNS depressing consequences of this medication.
    • Resist grapefruit derivatives.
    • Restrict caffeine intake.
    • Take with or without food. Food boosts the Cmax of extended-release Alprazolam by 25%, but the Area Under the Curve and half-life are not changed.


Alprazolam overdose can illustrate as drowsiness, turmoil, bad coordination, sluggish reflexes, daze, and demise. Consuming alprazolam with alcohol lessens the threshold for overdose.

Cases should have their respiration, pulse, and blood pressure regulated. Patients can be doctored by gastric lavage and intravenous liquids. If hypotension occurs, patients may be dealt with vasopressors.

 In cases of doubted overdoses, patients can be provided the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist Flumazenil in addition to other techniques of supervision.

If overdose is suspected:

If there has been an overdose, the poison control center should be called immediately or medical care should be taken right away. Tell and show what was taken, in what quantity, and when it occurred.


The subsequent points should be recalled when storing the medicine,

  • The medicament should be stored in a tightly sealed container at room temperature, away from heat, precipitation, and direct light.
  • Protect from freezing.
  • Maintain out of the reach of kids.
  • Do not keep outdated medicine or drugs no longer wanted.
  • Ask your healthcare learned expert how to dispose of any medicine, not in use.
  • It is very significant to conserve the orally disintegrating tablets from moisture. Discard and throw away any cotton packaging from the medicine container when the medicine is first used.
Abdur Rashid
Medically Reviewed By Abdur Rashid
MSC Public Health, MCSP, MHCPC
BSC (Hon) Physiotherapy
Consultant Neuro-spinal & Musculoskeletal Physiotherapist


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